The creation of reference material of composition of deep Lake Baikal water for the ecological monitoring of lakes’ ecosystems

Limnological institute, SB RAS, Irkutsk

Head of the Institute:

Mikhail A.Grachev, Corresponding member RAS,Professor
3 Ulan-Batorskaya, box 4199, Irkutsk, 664033, Russia
Tel. / Fax: (3952) 460504

Principal researchers:

A.N. Suturin, Dr.
M.A.Grachev, cor.-member
L.L.Petrov, Dr.
L.F.Paradina, Dr.
V.N.Epov, Mr.

Project objectives

The creation of reference material of composition of low-mineralized deep Lake Baikal water for the monitoring of lakes’ ecosystems. To make this project the following steps it is necessary to:

Background and significance of objectives

Lake Baikal contains 20 % of the fresh water of the Earth. It is the largest natural storage of high-quality drinking water. The stability of the ultrafresh water composition is the main reason for the preservation of the endemic flora and fauna of the lake. The efficiency of self-purgation of the lake is good, so that the cleanness of the lake water is higher than for other great lakes of the world influenced by human activity.

At present exact data on Baikal water composition are not available, because routine monitoring technologies are not enough precise and sensitive. Besides, multiannual seasonal measurements of water composition change in the same deep site were not carried out. The majority of trace elements is determined by an indirect methods, that considerably reduces reliability of the data. Absence of the reliable information about microelement composition of water have required revising of the methodical approaches to solution of this problem.

It is possible to prepare a standard Baikal water sample due to the following facts:

Research plan: approaches and methods

To develop modern methods of mass spectrometry with inductively-coupled plasma analysis for the determination of Na, K, Ca, Mg, heavy metals, other elements and compounds in the Baikal water, bacterio- and picoplankton. For an improvement of sensitivity and accuracy of mass-spectral methods, this special procedure will be designed based on internal and external standardization, isotope dilution, the quasi-equilibrium model of atomization, creation of ion beam, analysis of masses, registration of ions. The quality of results obtained will be estimated statistically on basis of international standards.

To investigate a year-round distribution of elements between water, bacterio plankton and picoplankton in the site of deep water sampling in Listvenichniy Gulf; investigation of elements' concentrations by depth; detection of elements, distribution of which depends on influence of the biota. For a solution of this task, the techniques of sampling from 500 m depth and by vertical slit and treatment of samples will be developed; as well as the technique for analysis of the biota. Regular investigations by depth will be carried out.

To obtain new data about the trace element composition of the Baikal water and the bio-geochemical role of the Baikal microorganisms.

1991 and 1997 was compared. The change in compounds content during 6 years did not exceed 1/3 of the allowed error of quantitative analysis. For investigation of a homogeneity and stability of initial depth composition of Baikal water, the ICP-MS method is selected. The contents of major (Na, K, Ca, Mg, S, Sr) and trace elements will be determined by using the instrument "Plasma Quad 2" with techniques developed by the authors. For these components the maximum errors of discontinuity and stability will be estimated by theoretical and model calculations. The calculated data will be compared with experimental results. The characteristics obtained for all compounds studied should not increase 1/8 of allowed error of quantitative analysis for the heterogeneity and 1/3 of it for the stability respectively (Standard 41-08-212-82).

The guessed methods and approaches in determination of element composition and biogeochemical researches, in research of the mechanism of distribution of trace substances between water and biota are pioneer. This allow more deep comprehension of diversiform composite processes of biogeochemistry of a self-cleaning ecosystem of Lake Baikal, and also enabling to receive true composition of depth Baikal water for an estimation of global processes of antropogeneous influence on ecosystem of Lake Baikal.

Expected results

Realisation of the project will allow to get poly-elements reference material of composition of low-mineralised water. This will give possibility to make the objective analysis of changes of chemical composition of surface continental waters, and to estimate the state of lakes' ecosystems and to control quality of drinking water.

List of publications of participants related to the project

Epov V.N., Suturin A.N. Ozonation of Baikal water. Chemistry and Water Technology. – 1997. – Ή 5. – P. 15-20.

Leonova G.A., Lomonosov I.S., Suturin A.N., Shepotko A.O. Toxic effect of Lead Compounds on Hydrobionts and Aquatic Birds // Hydrobiological Journal. – 1992. – Vol. 28, Ή 4. – P. 68-75.

Epov V. N., Lozhkin V. I., Epova E. N., Vasilyeva I. E. The analysis of ultra fresh Baikal water by ICP-MS // Chemistry. – 1998. – Vol. 52, Ή 7-8. – P. 391. (In Russ.).

Petrov L.L., Kornakov Yu.N., Persikova L.A., Malykh V.V. New reference samples of magmatic rocks: quartz diorite SKD-1 and sviatonossite SSV-1 // Geostandards Newsletter. – 1996. – Vol. 20, Ή 1. – P. 95-99.

Epov V.N., Vasilyeva I.E., Lozhkin V.I., Epova E.N., Paradina L.F., Suturin A.N. Determination of microelements in Baikal water by inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry // G. Anal. Chem. – 1999. – Vol. 54, Ή 9. (In Russ.).

Epov V.N., Vasilyeva I.E., Suturin A.N., Lozhkin V.I., Epova E.N. Determination of macroelements in Baikal water by inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry // G. Anal. Chem. – 1999. – Vol. 54, Ή 11. (In Russ.).