Institute of General and Experimental Biology, SB RAS, Ulan-Ude
Vladimir M.Korsunov, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor
6 Sakhyanova Str., Ulan-Ude, Russia
Tel.: (3012) 33-12-11, Fax: (3012) 33-01-34
Study of the influence of enterprises and motor transport surges on the natural objects of the city ambience - soil, water, vegetation.
The study of ecological circumstances in the Baikal region is rather important. High technogenic loading has an effect on ecological situation of the region in general. Large arteries of Lake Baikal – the Uda and Selenga rivers - pass on the territory of the city of Ulan-Ude.
We studied the natural objects exposed to exhausts of small boiler-houses and vehicles; the scales of surges, and also part of the population (children and adults) with diseases of breath organs are examined.
We studied contamination by small boiler-houses on the example of the airport area. 100-400 ì around the boiler-house contamination by sulphur and soot is marked. The oxides of sulphur, nitrogen and carbon ensured the acid reaction of snow waters. Further their influence on soil properties and regime processes will be investigated.
Within 3 years in places with heavy traffic, we conducted monitoring of the contamination of natural objects by heavy metals, in particular, Pb, Zn and Cd. We investigated the soil cover and green plants of several areas of Ulan-Ude. The lead concentration everywhere is 2.7 – 3 times as much as its background content (10 mg/kg), in some points its amount exceeds the norms of maximum admissible concentrations (MAC). Also, great concentrations of this elements was accumulated in the leaves of close-to-road vegetation.
Besides, our data shows that in the vegetables that have been brought up in a city boundaries even without application of fertilisers, the amount of nitrates is 1.7-3.1 MAC.
Under such unsatisfactory city ecological circumstances, the sick rate of the population is high, and the illnesses of the breath organs are in the first place. In 1995 diseases of breath organs made 27% of the population, in 1996 – 26.1% and in 1998 – 23.7%.
Further it is proposed to expand the research zone enveloping the maximum square of urban territory, and to study the content of polluting substances in river waters.
The techniques for the definition of heavy metals in soils, plants and waters will be used.
The degree of contamination of a soil cover and river waters by heavy metals, and also its accumulation in green vegetation with detection of plants bioindicators will be detected.
Tcidenova B.B., Andreeva D.B. Influence of an automobile emission on soil and vegetation of close by road àgrolandscapes // Materials of South-Siberian Regional Scientific Conference of the students and young scientists “Ecology of Southern Siberia”. – Abakan, 1998. – P. 168.
Tcidenova B.B., Andreeva D.B., Hertueva N.V. Heavy metals of automobile issues in soils and vegetation of close by road àgrolandscapes // Materials of Dokuchaev,s youth readings “Soil, ecology, society”. – St.-Petersburg, 1999. – T. 1. – P. 181.
Chimitdorzhieva G.D., Valova E.E., Druzhinina O.K., Egorova R.A., Chimitdorzhieva T.N., Hertueva N.V., Tcibikova E.V. Contamination of an environment and sick rate of the population of Ulan-Ude city // Materials of International Scientific – Practical Conference “Protection of an atmospheric air: systems of monitoring and guard”. – Penza, 1999.