Waste problem on the territory of the lake Baikal basin

Institute of General and Experimental Biology, SB RAS, Ulan-Ude

Head of the Institute:

Vladimir M.Korsunov, Doctor of Biological Sciences
6 Sakhyanova St., Ulan-Ude
Tel.: (3012) 33-12-11, Fax: (3012) 33-01-34,
email: ioeb@bsc.buriatia.ru

Principal researchers:

G.D.Chimitdorzhieva, Professor

Project objectives

1. Creation of a databank on wastes (volume, class of danger, second use).

2. Searching of the possible paths of utilisation.

Background and significance of objectives

The Buryat Republic, being in the system of Lake Baikal, bears a print of complicated natural and antropogeneous interactions and is a region with a bad ecological situation. There are large economic infrastructures consisting of the industrial enterprises, agrarian complexes, systems of moving and transport communications. Maximum technogenic impact on the environment is connected with the functioning of the industrial enterprises concentrated in Ulan-Ude, and also large industrial centres – Gusinoozersk and Nizhneselenginsk.

We conduct research into the neutralisation of integrated poultry farms waste, which are located in the coastal (40-50 km) band of Lake Baikal, lengthways of Selenga and Uda riverbeds, large its arteries. We complete a technique of composting dung with other moisture-absorbing organic materials. Research indicates that the valuable organic fertilisers raising fertility of degraded chestnut soils were obtained from ecologically dangerous waste by composting.

There are about 20 large dumps of household and industrial waste, which occupy huge squares also in limits of the city and its nearest suburban zone. The common feature of dumps is the lack of a guard from contamination of underground waters. The monitoring is not conducted, there are no reliable data on their volume and ecological danger. We analysed materials of the State Committee on ecology from 1996 about formed solid waste at several (8) industrial enterprises of Ulan-Ude.

The total amount of solid waste makes 73244.352 tons. Among them only 279.3 tons was used for the second time, 2767 tons was transmitted to processing to other enterprises. Waste of the 1st class of danger was made 307.57 t, 2nd class — 73.72 t, 3rd class – 30.13 t, 4th class – 6248.53 tons.

The outcomes of research show that in a soil fraction more than 1 mm, the content of lead is 0.005%, mercury – 1.5 – 9.3x10-6%.

The following industrial centres: Gusinoozersk, Kabansk, Kamensk, Zakamensk, Kyahta are characterised by an unfavourable ecological situation, which are founded on a coal industry, power system, mining of deposits of complex ores, uranium, conversing of raw material of limestone, clay, sand, gravel. At ores involved in industrial handling there are chemical elements belonging to 1st and 2nd classes of danger (1 – cadmium, lead, zinc, fluorine, 2 – Mo, Co). These components hit in tails of enrichment, then these elements reach a hydroweb, they even can be found 200 km away in ground adjournment and bank vegetation.

Research plan: approaches and methods

A technique on evaluation of danger classes of manufacture and consumption waste, technique on an evaluation of the soil sanitary condition.

Expected results

A databank on waste of the industrial enterprises of the republic (volume, class of danger, second use) will be created.

List of publications of participants related to the project