Institute of Biophysics, SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk
Andrey G.Degermendgzhy, Doctor of Sciences, Professor
Academgorodok, Krasnoyarsk, 660036, Russian
Telephone: +7- (3912) 49-46-03
Telefax: +7- (3912) 43-34-00
A.P.Shevyrnogov, Doctor of Sciences, Head of the Laboratory of Ecology Informatics,
Institute of Biophysics, SB RAS. Head of the Chair of Ecology Informatics,
Krasnoyarsk State Technical University;
A.V.Kartushinsky, scientist of the Laboratory of Ecology Informatics,
Institute of Biophysics SB RAS,
Assistant Professor of State Technical University;
G.S.Vysotskaya, scientist of Institute of Computational Modelling SB RAS;
A.F.Sidko, senior scientist of Laboratory of Ecology Informatics,
Institute of Biophysics, SB RAS.
Estimation of the stable space-time state of chlorophyll distribution in the surface layer of the ocean and perennial trends by satellite and ships data (methods and software).
INTRODUCTION. Space-time distribution of chlorophyll concentration in the surface layer of the ocean during a long-term period is of great importance for investigation of carbon cycles in hydrosphere and biological processes. Determination of long-term trends of biological productivity in the ocean requires finding base points and areas. These areas may form the grounds to characterise the fundamental processes of ocean biology and hydrology.
HYPOTHESIS AND SPECIFIC GOALS. Analysis of long-term ship-borne and satellite data allows one to put forward a hypothesis about stationary areas in the seas with high stability and highly variable seasonal dynamics of phytopigments. The specific goals make it possible to verify this hypothesis.
Specific goal 1: Investigation of variability of seasonal chlorophyll concentration dynamics in different specific sea areas. Chlorophyll concentrations in the surface ocean layer, calculated from CZCS and SeaWiFS spectral, are used as input data. The object under study can be regarded as a space-distributed developing system. The authors of the project are going to use a methodology to construct models of such systems. It allows difficulties connected with deficient information to be avoided. This approach is as follows: 1) to introduce the concept of a state of the system as a compact area in a space of signs. In this case homogenous regions on the sea surface are identified; 2) the process of development is considered as a sequence of changes of the states; 3) a model of local statistical systems is constructed within the framework of these states. CZCS and SeaWiFS data will be processed by original geoinformation system, developed at the Institute of Biophysics (IBP) and SeaDAS program (NASA).
Specific goal 2: Investigation of the relationship of the specified areas with global and regional ocean processes (ocean currents, upwellings, frontal areas) on the basis of long-term oceanological data.
Specific goal 3: Investigation of long-term trends of chlorophyll concentration in areas, specified in the work on Specific goal 1. To reveal long-term trends of chlorophyll concentration dynamics, a complex of statistical models is to be developed. As opposed to the above approach, the time interval between the system levels is one year.
Specific goal 4: To develop graphic processing with animation to establish dynamics of biological production in areas with stationary and high seasonal variation of phytopigments in the surface layer. The work will be done in two stages. At the first stage standard animation packages will be used. At the second stage a special fast animation software program orientated to this special object will be developed.
Methods have been developed in the Institute of Biophysics which use both ship-borne and airborne spectral remote sensing data. The results obtained show that such an approach allows one to find time-space heterogeneity of chlorophyll concentration in critical areas of the ocean (frontal areas, upwellings, rings etc.). High-efficiency results became possible after the launch of CZCS mission in the US. Spectral scanner data with high space and time resolution acquired in 7.5 years provide a realistic way for investigation of sea productivity dynamics. NASA made these data available for Institute of Biophysics SB RAS and preliminary studies have been carried on the basis of these data. The powerful new statistical methods afford joint use of these data. Another high-efficiency tool is to animate chlorophyll dynamics by a new graphic processing technique. The two approaches proposed will enable the oceanology to reveal the hidden regularity of the space-time distribution of chlorophyll concentration in the seas.
Investigation of the space-time distribution of chlorophyll concentration in the surface layer of the ocean by space spectral CZCS and SeaWiFS scanner long-term data is proposed. It is of prime importance for research of carbon cycles in hydrosphere and marine biology. The object under study is to be the variability of seasonal chlorophyll concentrations dynamics in different specific seas areas and its relationship with global and regional ocean processes (ocean streams, upwellings, frontal areas). For high efficiency the research is supposed to employ original software. For this software new non-parametric statistical methods of classifications and simulation with non complete information will be developed. Graphic processing with animation to be developed will be used to establish dynamics of biology production, areas with stationary and high seasonal variation of phytopigments in the surface layer.
Shevyrnogov A.P. and Vysotskaya G.S. Observed trends of chlorophyll concentration in the surface layer of the northern and central Atlantic (1979-1983) // Adv. Space Res. 1998. Vol. 22, ¹ 5. P. 701-704.
Shevyrnogov A.P. and Sid'ko A.F.. Ground truth methods as a part of space mapping of inland water phytopigment dynamics // Adv. Space Res. 1998. Vol. 22, ¹ 5. P. 705-708.
Shevyrnogov A.P., Vysotskaya G.S., Gitelzon J.I. Quasistationary areas of chlorophyll concentration in the world ocean as observed satellite data // Adv. Space Res. 1996. Vol. 18, ¹ 7. P. (7)129-(7)132.
Karlin L.N., Razumov E.V., Shevyrnogov A.P. Local Unconformities in Satellite Images of Water Surfaces// Interactions of Biogeochemical Cycles in Aqueous Systems, Mitt.Geol.-Paleont. Inst., Univ. Gamburg, SCOPE/UNEP Sonderband, part 7, Hamburg, 1992. Heft 72. S. 281 - 289.
Gitelson I.I., Shevyrnogov A.P., Molvinskikh S.L. Chepilov V.V. Determination of Photosynthetic Pigments in Aqueous Ecosystems // Mitt.Geol.-Paleont.Inst., Univ.Gamburg, SCOPE/UNEP Sonderband, Hamburg, 1988. Heft 66. S. 331-340.
Gitelson I.I., Abrosov N.S., Gladyshev M.I., Degermendgi A.G., Sid'ko F.Ya., Gold V.M., Gold Z.G., Shevyrnogov A.P. Yenisei: Problems of the Largest Siberian River // Mitt. Geol.-Paleont.Inst., Univ.Gamburg, SCOPE/UNEP Sonderband, Hamburg, 1985. Heft 66. S. 331-340.
Terskov I.A., Gitelzon I.I., Shevyrnogov A.P., Zub Yu.P., Kudenko Yu.A., Molvinskikh S.L., Chepilov V.V. Chlorophyll Records in Surface Water Using Aircraft // Proc. of the Acad. Sci. 1976. Vol. 227, ¹ 1. P. 224 - 227.
Kartushinsky A.V. Time-space structure and variability of surface temperature frontal zones in the ocean (based on AVHRR satellite data) // 32nd Scientific Assembly of COSPAR, Abstracts, 12-19 July, 1998, Nagoya, Japan. P. 45.
Kartushinsky A.V., Shevyrnogov A.P. Time-scale changes in temperature frontal zones and pigment concentration on the ocean surface (AVHRR and CZCS satellite data) // 32nd Scientific Assembly of COSPAR, Abstracts, 12-19 July, 1998, Nagoya, Japan. P. 47.