Журнал Scientific & Academic Publishing. Сентябрь, 2014

Dear Colleagues,

Welcome to the September, 2014 edition of SAP newsletter, providing monthly summaries of articles on science & education related topics of interest to scientist and professionals. The mission of our journals is to provide an open access forum for publishing new findings on issues pertinent to scientific and academic field. We also invite you to submit original research papers, review articles, short reports, or case studies are considered for publication in our Multidisciplinary Journals. 

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Journal Title

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Authors from Developing Countries

Advances in Analytical Chemistry




American Journal of Stem Cell Research




American Journal of Computer Architecture




The discount is effective for submissions from August 20, 2014-October 31, 2014, More >>

A Phenomenological Relation for Decay Times
Frans De Medts, TU Eindhoven
Abstract: Georges Lemaitre was invited to London in 1931 in order to take part in a meeting of the British Association on the relation between the physical Universe and spirituality. There he proposed that the Universe expended from an initial point, which he called the ‘Primeval Atom’ and developed in a report published in Nature: ‘The beginning of the World from the Point of View of Quantum Theory’. [1] This article tries to make clear how the way in which the universe is supposed to have come into being directs (and can therefore be the deeper cause of) all quantum mechanical events. On the basis of hidden symmetries a‘smallest space-action’ (or ‘smallest limited amount of uncertainty’) is established, which provides a connection between all that is and which lays down the boundaries within which all variation is possible; unity in diversity then...  More >>

Towards a Different Architecture in Cooperation with Nanotechnology and Genetic Science: New Approaches for the Present and the Future
Didem Akyol Altun, Bora Örgülü
Abstract: Technological advancements and scientific researches, especially in nanotechnology and genetic engineering in the latter part of the 20th century, encourage new approaches for the architecture of the future at present. There have been many studies on genetic algorithms, nano-materials, nanostructures and “searching a new architecture” with the help of interdisciplinary relationships between architecture and nanotechnology and genetics. This study categorizes contemporary works in this field into three main approaches: the form-finding strategies helped by genetic algorithms, the hybrid designs with nano-materials or nano-sensors and the living architectures. Thus, the aim of this paper is to introduce new architectural approaches generated with the interdisciplinary domains of genetics and nanotechnology and to discuss them in the context of the future of architecture...  More >>

Medium of Natural Phenomena
Branko Mišković
Abstract: Looking for the deeper essence of natural phenomena and minimal number of physical laws describing them, a hypothetical vacuum medium is stratified into structural layers, as the levels of observation of respective processes. Instead of a fluidic, the dielectric medium successfully explains all EM phenomena at least. More or less convincingly, inertia and gravitation are explained on EM bases, and the speed of light propagation, with respective reference frame, is conditioned by gravitation itself. The unification of physics is thus initialized, just on the advanced classical bases...  More >>

Contribution of QR-Codes to the Marketing Mix − A Case Study
Müge Klein
Abstract: The mobilisation of IT-applications over the past few years has opened up new opportunities for business companies to develop mobile marketing strategies. QR-Codes, as the most popular way of mobile tagging, enable a pull mobile marketing strategy, wherein customers can request information about products or services that interest them by scanning a code with their mobile devices. This study provides an assessment of the potential contribution of QR-Codes to marketing mix elements, using the familiar framework of the four Ps (product, price, promotion, place) and the four Cs (costumer, cost, communication, convenience). In order to investigate the influences of QR-Codes in the context of marketing mix elements, a case study about QR-Code based mobile marketing activities of B/S/H/ Turkey (one of the leading electronic home appliances companies in Turkey) is presented...  More >>

Stock Market and Monetary Policy Versus Inflation: A Time Series Approach
Jaehan Koh, Sangheon Shin
Abstract: We examine the dynamic relationship among real activity, inflation, interest rates and stock returns in the post-war period from 1947 to 2008 by employing a recursive vector autoregression (VAR) model. We find no significant relationship between real stock returns and inflation, supporting the Fisher effect that common stocks are hedges against inflation. Furthermore, we investigate the effects of changes in the Federal Reserve’s monetary policy rule by comparing the response of interest rates to inflation between two sub-periods: pre-1980 period (1947 – 1979) and post-1980 period (1980 – 2008). We find that real interest rates absorb inflation shock much more quickly in the post-1980 period than in the pre-1980 period, the evidence supporting the well-known fact that the Federal Reserve more aggressively responds to inflation in the post-1980 period than in the pre-1980 period...  More >>

Antidiabetic Effect of Cleome droserifolia (Cleomaceae)
Nagy MA, Mohamed SA
Abstract: Ethnopharmacological relevance: Cleomedroserifolia is used in egyptien traditional medicine for treatment of diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of Cleomedroserifolia methanolic extract (CDE) against pancreas β-cells’ damage and antioxidant defense systems in alloxan induced diabetic rats...  More >>

Assessing Geographical Inaccessibility to Health Care: Using GIS Network Based Methods
Sudha Yerramilli and Duber Gomez Fonseca
Abstract: Disparities in the geographic accessibility to health care may be due to the location/distribution of the population and the characteristics of the transportation infrastructure relative to spatial arrangement of the health care delivery system within a region. Access to health care is a complicated concept and is largely dependent on the characteristics of the population in need of services. The most significant features affecting the health status and health outcomes involve distance between the population’s geographic regions and health care facilities and the travel time taken to reach the health care delivery system. Because of Mississippi's rural nature and uneven distribution of physicians, geographic disparities exist in access to primary care services leaving women, children, elderly and general populations in underserved health care regions...  More >>

Climate Change Impact on Rice Yield and Adaptation Response of Local Farmers in Sumedang District, West Java, Indonesia
A. Candradijaya and others
Abstract: Despite the well-documented model-simulated adverse climate change impact on rice yields reported elsewhere, interventions to address the issue seems still limited, particularly at local level. This links to the uncertainty that entails to climate projection and its likely future impact, which varies across regions and climate models. The study analyzes climate change-induced yield reduction and the adequacy of current adaptations to cope with the large range of impact under various climate models. Seventeen General Circulation Models (GCMs) under Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) climate change scenarios of RCP8.5 and RCP4.5, combined with CROPWAT model were used for near-future (2011-2040) and far-future (2041-2070) projections. The output confirms yield reduction to occur in the near-future, to the extent variable across the GCMs. At the highest estimation, rice yield decreases by 32.00% and 31.81%, in comparison to baseline, for near-future under RCP8.5 and RCP4.5, respectively. The reduction extends, with a slightly higher degree, to the far-future. The reduction is sensitive to variation in farming practices of the local farmers, in particular that in planting time and irrigation scheduling. The shifting of planting time to better match rainfall pattern and improved irrigation reduced the yield reduction by 16.16% and 15.18%, respectively. The combined impact of the two, however, still leaves un-tapped a reduction of 5.86%, suggesting that planned interventions are still required to improve the current farm management. The findings provide valuable inputs for relevant authorities to understand the whole continuum of climate change-induced rice yield reduction, based on which sets of planned interventions locally specific for the areas could be developed, accordingly...  More >>

Empirical and Artificial Neural Network Approach for Determination of Constant Drying Rate Phase of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
Nour Eddine Benaouda, Lyes Bennamoun, Abdellah Khellaf
Abstract: In this study, Constant drying rate phase (CDRP) of spearmint and bay leaves are determined during application of forced convective drying. The applied conditions are: 30, 40 and 50°C for the air temperature, the relative humidity and the air velocity vary respectively from 20 to 60% and from 0.5 to 1.5 m/s. Two methods are used to define the CDRP based on the two parameters of external drying conditions; this is the differencebetweenthewet and drybulb temperature of airand the drying air velocity; data empirical and a neural network approach (ANN), the expressions of CDRP are determined and the coefficients characterizing the product are identified with experimental data, an artificial neural network model, trained by levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, is developed to predict the values of the CDRP. The results of the two approached are statistically compared by calculation of the correlation coefficient R2 and the fit standard error (FitStdErr). The artificial neural network model is able to predict the initial drying rate of bay leaves quite well with R2 of 0.92. The fit standard error is obtained as 0.006...  More >>

Formation Mechanism and Stability Analysis Method for Wedge Loess Collapse
Ye Wanjun, Shen Yanjun, Yang Gengshe, Dong Xihao
Abstract: Wedgeloess collapse is one of the important forms of loess collapses. Wedge collapse is mainly controlled by two structural planes whose tendencies are opposite. In the process of slope excavation, the unloading effect on the slope surface results in the compressive stress in the slope body to be readjusted, stress difference of slope body increases gradually from inside to outside, and the free surface in the slope body becomes slack and deformed. The original joint fissure of slope expands gradually. When the wedge is in a state of criticality, a sliding trend emerges on a sliding surface. If the shearing strength of the cement on this sliding surface could not resist the sliding force, the load gradually and rapidly moves to another slide surface, and a wedge collapse will arise. According to the destruction mechanism of wedge collapses, the model of geomechanics is proposed. Formulas are established to calculate the coefficient of stability of wedge and various structural planes by combining the limit equilibrium equation with Mohr-Coulomb strength criterion. The stability analysis method of wedge loess collapse is put forward. The research results provide the theoretical basis for the quantitative evaluation of the stability of loess collapse and they have important reference value for the design and construction of loess collapse control...  More >>

Is Whole Body Vibration Exercise a Viable Option for Individuals with Alzheimer’s Disease?
Danúbia Da Cunha Sá-Caputo and Others
Abstract: Besides the cognitive limitations, individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have posture and gait disturbances and risk of falls. Researchers have reported that appropriate physical activity (PA) can enhance cognitive function and attenuates age-related deterioration of the brain structure. The search of the number of publications (NP) in the database PubMed with the keyword “physical activity” alone and in association with other keywords related to chronic diseases has shown that the scientific interest involving PA and diabetes is the highest and with AD is the smallest...  More >>

Medical and Social Efficiency of Outpatient Service at the Regional Level
Ludmila Gerasimova and Andrey Ivanov
Abstract: According to the Russian and foreign experts public health protection entirely depends on medical and organizational factors, as morbidity and mortality rates of the population are connected with organization and quality of medical care. The indicators of medical facilities’ efficiency are criteria of social and economic importance of healthcare in the society. The efficiency of the healthcare system and medical facilities is estimated by a set of statistical indicators, each of which describes some components of medical activity. The effectiveness of outpatient’s and inpatient’s care in the administrative-territorial districts of the Chuvash Republic was evaluated according to our methods...  More >>

Preliminary Test Single Stage Shrinkage Estimator for the Scale Parameter of Gamma Distribution
Abbas Najim Salman, Aseel Hussein Ali, Muna Daoud Salman
Abstract: In this paper, preliminary test single stage shrinkage (PTSSS) techniques was used for estimation the scale parameter θ of Gamma distribution when the shape parameter α was known as well as a prior knowledge about θ was available in the form of initial estimate θ0 of θ. It is proposed to estimate θ by a testimator that is based upon the result of a test of the hypothesis H0: θ = θ0 against the hypothesis HA: θ ≠ θ0 with level of significance . If H0 is accepted we used , where the weighting factor is a function of the test statistic for testing H0 or may be constant such that . However if H0 is rejected we used , where and is the classical estimator of θ (MLE or MVUE). Choosing the weighting factor , (i =1,2) appropriately, an expression for the Mean Squared Error (MSE) and Bias Ratio [B(.)] of were derived and comparisons were made with classical estimator () in the sense of efficiency and with some related earlier studies...  More >>

Identifying the Preferred Leadership Style for Managerial Position of Construction Management
Younghan Jung, Myung Goo Jeong, Thomas Mills
Abstract: The construction industry is multidisciplinary by nature, operating within many boundaries and collaborating closely with many players, including designers, constructors, owners, and government agencies. Project and organization success depends on well-developed interpersonal skills working at different hierarchy levels to meet varying leadership and performance demands. Leadership styles can be represented with differing combinations of three main decision-making styles: 1) Autocratic, 2) Participatory, and 3) Free-rein. This study hypothesizes that varying managerial positions require different combinations of leadership styles to achieve high levels of performance and successful career. This study surveys eighty-two project executives and managers to identify their preferred leadership style for construction managerial positions. The statistical results indicate that both project executives and managers prefer to have more autocratic managers and superintendents at project manager positions and a more participatory leadership for project executives. Demographic factors surveyed, also include current executive and manager levels of education, length of employment, and leadership program attendance to understand the career path of a managerial position in construction...  More >>

Comparison of Artificial Neural Network and Binary Logistic Regression for Classification of Chiropteran Dietary Specializations
Eric Adjei Lawer, Albert Luguterah, Suleman Nasiru
Abstract: Discrimination between dietary specializations of bats has been largely analyzed using multivariate techniques such as discriminant and principal component analysis. In this study, models based on an artificial neural network (Multi-layer feed forward neural network) and Binary Logistic Regression (BLR) were compared in their ability to differentiate between insectivorous and frugivorous bats using habitat and morphometric measurements on captured bats. Although both models had similar diagnostic performance based on the area under the ROC (99% vrs 99.09%), sensitivity (97.6% vrs 96.8%) and specificity (95.3% vrs 93.8%) values, the logistic model was superior to the neural network model. We therefore recommend that if prediction is the sole objective, then ANNs provide acceptable results whiles BLR could be used to identify factor effects on classification. Further studies on these models may consider incorporating other dietary habits as well as factor effects (predictors) which could improve the accuracy of predictions...  More >>

Analysis of Under-five Mortality in Ghana Using Logit Model
Kwaku F. Darkwah, Sampson Boachie-Yiadom, Richard Tawiah
Abstract: This paper examines the key predictors of under-five mortality (UFM) in the Tano South district of Ghana. In order to obtain data for the study, 200 mothers of the aforementioned district were surveyed to elicit information on whether or not they have ever experienced UFM. Moreover, information on environmental and clinical factors were gathered. The responses provided by mothers on their status of UFM was measured on a dichotomous scale and modeled using the binomial distribution. The logit regression was then used to model this probability distribution as a function of the environmental and clinical factors. Of the entire sample 22.5%, 44.0% and 33.5% were aged 15-24, 25-34, and 35 years and older respectively. The model revealed grandmultigravida parity (OR=2.243), anaemia (OR=12.073) and malaria (OR=12.182) are significantly associated with increased odds of UFM. Moreover, use of treated bed-nets (OR=0.075), child vaccination (OR=0.560), practice of exclusive (0.018) and not exclusive breast feeding (OR=0.025) are significantly associated with lower odds of UFM. The model provided a reasonable fit and explained a moderate proportion of total variance in the data used (Cox and Snell R square = 0.423 and Nagelkerke R Square = 0.531)...  More >>

Quantum Complex Matter Space
Reza Ahangar
Abstract: In this article, a new fundamental views on matter will be presented and the paradigm will be shifted from real or pure imaginary particle to Complex Matter Space. A new assumption will be imposed that matter has two intrinsic components, mass and charge. The mass will be measured by a real number and charge by an imaginary unit. We review some results and effects of the Complex Matter Space Theory on Special Relativity theory and hope that this approach helps a relativistic quantum view of energy and momentum in Complex Matter Space...  More >>

Replay: On a Common Logical Error in Calculation and Applying the Complex Conductivities of Collisionless Plasmas
V. N. Soshnikov
Abstract: Damping/growing of electron waves in collisionless plasmas (kinetic equation with zero collision terms) does not exist contrary to the established among plasma physicists more than half a century ago the view about theoretical discovery of its existence as a natural and experimentally confirmed physical phenomenon...  More >>


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