1. Selection vector and variability patterns under experimental
conditions of animal domestication
General Results 1993-1995:
Our investigations are concerned with the fundamental problem of
the relation of the major evolutionary factors, selection and
variability. This relation is considered in the terms of the selection
vector. Selection vectorized for behavioural traits is assigned a
specific creative role. Our data demonstrated the diverse effects of
long-term selection of silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes) for tameability.
The main goals are: to model further the situation of strong pressure
of this selection on foxes and representatives of other taxa; analysis
of the course of selection and its correlated responses; study on the
developmental patterns of behaviour reorganization under selection for
tameability and also elucidation of the role of some hormonal and
transmitter parameters in this reorganization; searsch for and study
on the correlated marker of the selection vector, i.e., morphological
change that arises in all animals as a result of involvement in
experimental domestication. It is hoped that this additional
information will help to clear the common and species-specific
variability patterns under selection vectorrized for domestication.
And this in its turn will give some new insights into the creative
role of selection and into the evolutionary implications of selection
vector in particular.
In the past 3 years, emphasis was on the studying of variability
in behaviour, morphology and hormonal function parameters during
ontogeny. Thus, it was shown that changes in behaviour during
development were correlated with the development of adrenocortical
system in grey rats selected for behaviour. The course of early
postnatal development of hormonal activity of the reproductive system
as an integrative index of fitness was analysed in silver foxes under
selection for domestication. Also in foxes, it was found that there
were some changes in diurnal rhythm of melatonin concentration and of
Certain coat colour mutations under selection for domesticated
behaviour were studied in foxes and minks. Attention was focused on
specificities of inheritance, features of gene pleiotropy, the
morphology of hair pigmentation and embryological mechanisms. The
influence of environmental photoperiod on the "Star" mutation
expression and its pleiotropic effect on the secondary sexual ratio
were demonstrated in foxes.
- Kolesnikova L.A., Yaga K., Hattori A., Reiter R.J. (1993)
Tissue content of melatonin in relatively wild and domesticated silver
foxes Vulpes fulvus. J. Evolutionary Biochemistry and Physiology.
- Prasolova L.A., Trut L.N. (1993). Effect of the S gene on the
migration rate of melanoblasts in embryos of silver foxes. Genetika.
- Trut L.N. (1993). Is selection alternative or complementary to
variability? Genetika 29:1941-1952. (Rus.).
- Trut L.N., Nesterova T.B., Zakian S.M. (1993). Comparative
analysis of the level of heterozygosity for glucose phosphate
isomerase (GPI) locus in silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes) of domesticated
and control populations. Genetika. 29:694-698. (Rus.)
- Kolesnikova L.A., Yaga K., Hattori A., Reiter R.S. (1994). The
circadian dynamics of the melatonin concentration in the silver fox
pineal gland, plasma and retina. Sechenov Physiological J. 80:38-42.
- Kolesnikova L.A., Serova L.I., Yaga K., Hattori A., Reiter
R.S. (1994). Peculiarities of melatonin biosynthesis in the pineal gland
of relatively wild and domesticated silver foxes Vulpes fulvus. J.
Evolutionary Biochemistry and Physiology. 30:338-343. (Rus.)
- Prasolova L.A., Tichomirov I.B., Vsevolodov E.V., Latypov
L.F., Trapezov O.V. (1994). Phenogenetic analysis of pigmentation of a
new coat colour mutation of american mink (Mustela vison Schr. L.) and
its combinations with some of the known mutations. Genetika
- Blanchard D.C., Popova N.K., Plyusnina I.Z., Velichko I.L.,
Campbell D., Blanchard R.J., Nikulina J., and Nikulina E.M. (1994).
Defensive Reactions of "Wild-Type" and "Domesticated" Wild Rats to
Approach and Contact by a Threat Stimulus. Aggressive behaviour.
- Trut L.N. (1995). Domestication of the fox: Roots and effects.
- Plyusnina I.Z. (1995). The effects of cross-mating on the
development of behaviour during the primary socialization period in
silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Scientifur 19:171-177.
- Trut L.N. (1995). Sex ratio in silver foxes: effects of
domestication and the star gene. Theor. Appl. Genet. N 6.
- Prasolova L.A., Trut L.N. (1995). Morphology of molting hairs
in domesticated silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Relation between the
expression of the star and the mottling mutations. Scientifur. N 4.
Participation in State and International Programs:
- Inernational Science Foundation "Selection vector and
variability patterns under experimental conditions of animal
- Russian Foundation for Basic Research "Selection vector and
genetic variability pattern".
- Russian State Programm "New Trends in Genetics":
- Genetic resources of fur animals;
- The patterns of genetic variabilities under destabilizing
- The analysis of the role of glucocorticoids and
neurotransmitters in genetic control of behaviour development in wild
- Inernational project "Selection for more confident farmed